Yearly Archives: 2014

Life Member Technical Tour 2015

The IEEE Life Member Committee has organised a technical tour, the 5th in the series, that includes visits to sites of special interest to those interested in the history of engineering and technology in Western Europe. The Tour begins in Paris on May 6th, moves on to Geneva, and ends in Munich on May 17th. It is open to all IEEE members and their partners. More details are available on the Life Member Committee website. Queries can be addressed to:
Charles Turner ([email protected])
(Coordinator for the 2015 IEEE Life Member Technical Tour)

IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition, A Historic First in the Sultanate

By: Arnold N. Santos, Secretary-IEEE Oman Section

MUSCAT – History will unfold in the capital city of the Sultanate on 1-4 February, 2015 as it hosts the IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition at Sultan Qaboos University for the first time on its 8th biennial succession.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) – Oman, a professional organization under the auspices of Oman Society of Engineers (OSE) takes great honor and pride for having been chosen to organize this momentous technical event which is considered to be the most prominent and premiere gathering of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering professionals in the GCC region.

This conference, which has already been held and organized in other GCC states of KSA, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain, aims to convene practitioners and students alike all over the world from various industries, academic and research institutions on multidisciplinary background. The key objective of this gathering is to present, discuss and review the challenges and developments confronting the dynamic world of electrical and electronics engineering. Tutorials, workshops and industrial exhibitions on the theme “Towards Sustainable Smart Solutions” will also be showcased.

The conference is supported through the generous sponsorship of major companies including Oman Electricity Transmission Company, Muscat Electricity Distribution Company, Authority for Electricity Regulations and Public Authority for Electricity & Water. H.E. Dr. Ahmed Al-Futaisi, Minister of Transport & Communications is anticipated to inaugurate and grace the event while Dr. Amer Al-Hinai, Chairman of the Authority for Electricity Regulations, is directly contributing to the conference through his active involvements in the steering and organizing committees.

Meanwhile, preparations are in full swing through the leadership of Dr. Ahmed Al-Naamany, conference chair, and ably assisted by the members of the steering and organizing committees to ensure the successful hosting of this conference.

IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition,  A Historic First in the Sultanate
8th GCC Conference and Exhibition steering and organizing committee members from Oman and other GCC states

Virtual Career Fair

GlobeComLPheadThe Virtual Career Fair @ IEEE GLOBECOM enables you to reach technology employers without having to leave your home or office!  By registering for this event, you will meet leading technology employers that are looking to hire qualified candidates like yourselves.

To learn more about this Virtual Career Fair, visit

R8 Young Professionals Exceptional Volunteer Award

It is our great pleasure to announce the winners of the Region 8 Young Professionals Exceptional Volunteer Award 2014! Despite the difficulties in choosing due to the impressive quality of the many nominations we have received, three candidates were selected to be presented with this year’s award: Ivana Stupar (Croatia Section), Pavlos Kleanthous (Cyprus Section) and Amgad Ibrahim (Egypt Section). Additionally, two special distinctions will be awarded to the runner-ups: David Oyedokun (South Africa Section) and Sofia Gomes (Portugal Section). The Region 8 Young Professionals Subcommittee would like to warmly congratulate the winners, as well as the runner-up candidates and the rest of the nominees, and wish you the very best in your future work! The quality of the nominations has impressed us deeply, and the continuous dedication, skills and hard work of the awarded volunteers is a source of inspiration and motivation for us all to keep on improving. We trust you will continue having a positive impact in the IEEE community and we look forward to seeing your future achievements!

Pavlos Ivana Amgad

SPC 2014 final results




What is IEEE Region 8 (R8) Student Paper Contest (SPC)?

 SPC is a traditional, long existing IEEE activity for undergraduate and MSc IEEE students (but not for PhD Students). SPC is probably the OLDEST PERMANENT STUDENT ACTIVITY in IEEE Regon 8  – existing over 45 years ! In fact SPC is a mixture of student, technical,educational, scientific and academic activities. Professors and IEEE volunteers with non-student grades  should be inevitably involed  in SPC. 


How does SPC work?

    SPC is a multi-level process. Local contest is at the Student Branch (SB) level, under SB sole responsibility. The winner(s) of each SB Contest may compete for the regional SPC. Paper submission deadline to submitt papers to R8 is December 15, each year. An international Jury is reviewing papers anonymously. Oral Finals and Winners Announcenents are being organized along with the EUROCON / MELECON Region 8 flagship conferences.                              


IEEE Region 8 SPC 2014 – I phase results 



IEEE Region 8 Student Paper Contest 2014 was announced beginning June 2013. The deadline to submit Student Branches best papers to R8 contest was December 15, 2013. 

Within the SPC 2014 campaign, the following activities were realized, mainly by emails:

  • Beginning June 2013 a SPC 2014 email call with essential SPC data and rules was sent to all R8 SB chairs.
  • The same email was also sent to all SB counselors.
  • Different versions of the SPC calls were sent to SB chairs and counselors three more times.
  • All Region 8 IEEE student members got once email with brief information about various Students’ activities, including SPC.
  • Notes about SPC were included in Region 8 News/Student news, December 2013 issue.
  • Section chairs, Section students’ representatives and student activities officers also obtained basic information about SPC, asking them to support and co-organize SPC activities. It was especially emphasized to connect when possible local SPC contests with other IEEE R8 Sections and Chapters activities.
  • Several other single activities were also realized in order to make SPC 2014 more successful.

Before the deadline 24 IEEE student papers were submitted. Additionally,  two papers were late  and were not registered. 23 papers were accepted and graded.  .

SPC 2014 contestants were from 15 Sections and 21different Student Branches/Institutions:

  • EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland;

  • University of Ljubljana, Slovenia;

  • Univ Maribor, Slovenia

  • Technical University, Munich, Germany;

  • Alexandria University, Egypt (2);

  • Univeresity Carlos III, Madrid, Spain;

  • University of Malaga, Spain

  • TechUniversity of Eindhoven, Benelux;

  • Telecom Bretagne, France;

  • Tomsk Poly University, Russia

  • Klagenfurt University, Austria;

  • Saint-Petersburg University, Russia;

  • University of Nis, Serbia & Montenegro;

  • University of Belgrade, Serbia & Mne

  • Ecole Nationale d’Ing Sfax (ENIS), Tunis;

  • Cathol. University of Louvain, Benelux;   

  • United Arab Emirates, Fujairaht

   * United Arab Emiraes, KUSTAR 

  • University Sofia, Bulgaria
  • University KIM Skopje, Makedonia

  • Univeresity of Stochholm, Sweden


The first phase of the IEEE Region 8 Student Paper Contest – selection of the best five papers for Oral Finals – finished beginning of March 2014. During the I phase the International Jury:

  • Prof. George Paunovic, Serbia – Chair, [email protected]
  • Prof. Samir Shaheen, Egypt,

  • Prof. Andrzej Pacut, Poland,

  • Prof. Carlos Lopez-Barrio, Spain,

  • Prof. Mohamad Awad, Lebanon,

anonymous graded all papers. The contributions were graded as follows:

  • Written paper evaluation:
  • 45 points maximum for the technical and engineering content,

  • 25 points maximum for the paper content presentation.

Jury selected the following five papers (in alphabetical order of the first author’s first name) for the SPC 2014 Oral Finals:

Nasser Al Rayhi (90756837), Rashid Al Tuniji (92885686), Shaimaa Al Hefaity (90823344)
“Enhanced Indoor Navigation and Tracking Using Support Vector Machine and Internal Mobile Phone Sensors”,
Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research (KUSTAR), Sharjah- United Arab Emirates;
Nick Janssen (92546522): “Analysis and Design of Complex Structures with an Eigencurrent Expansion Method”, Technical University Eindhoven, Netherlands;

Nicolas Van der Noot (92784951), Allan Barrea (92891793): “Zero-Moment Point on a Bipedal Robot under Bio-Inspired  Walking Control”, Catholique University of Louvain (Jt.CAS-004/ED-015), Benelux

Sava Grkovic (92891029): “Small Balanced Antennas for Bluetooth Applications”, University of Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro;

Slobodan Mitrovic  (92860979): “Homometric Sets in Diameter-two and Outerplanar Graphs”,
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
The first phase of the IEEE R8 SPC – selection of the best five papers for Oral Finals – finished March 8, 2014.
IEEE Region 8 SPC 2014 – II phase results     



Second phase of the Region 8 SPC 2014 – Oral Finals – was organized in Beirut, Lebanon,  on Monday  April 14, 2014, during the MELECON 2014 IEEE Conference (

SPC finalists obtained up to 30 points maximum, depending on the quality of the paper presentations and given answers.  Oral Finals session was well attended. The papers Power Point introductions were well prepared and presented (all within permitted 15 minutes). There were quite a number of questions, both from Jury members and from audience. The finalists’ answers were very good.


Nasser Al Rayhi (90756837), Oral Finalist from Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research Student Branch, Sharjah – United Arab Emirate, did not participate in the competition.

When session finished, Jury had a private discussion and awarded three prizes, from the IEEE Life Member Fund, to:

 I prize:  Diploma and 800 USD (cash award amount):

Slobodan Mitrovic  (92860979): “Homometric Sets in Diameter-two and Outerplanar Graphs”,
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
EPFL Student Branch, from which the I prize winner of the SPC 2014 came from, will receive the Region 8 “Dick Poortvliet Award”, an amount of USD 250;


II prize: Diploma and 500 USD (cash award amount):

Nick Janssen (92546522): “Analysis and Design of Complex Structures with an Eigencurrent Expansion Method”, Technical University Eindhoven, Netherlands;
III prize: Diploma and 200 USD (cash award amount):

Nicolas Van der Noot (92784951), Allan Barrea (92891793): “Zero-Moment Point on a Bipedal Robot under Bio-Inspired  Walking Control”, Catholique University of Louvain (Jt.CAS-004/ED-015), Benelux
The official recognition of the winners, finalists and SPC Jury was organized during the MELECON 2014 Gala Dinner, April 14, 2014. IEEE Region 8 Director Martin Bastiaans and SPC 2014 Coordinator George Paunovic introduced all the SPC finalists, members of the Jury and pronounced three winners. All finalists also obtained certificates that their papers were selected within the five best SPC 2014 papers.


The conference was very successfully and efficiently organized in downtown Beirut in a comfortable hotel with the modern conference center. Let me especially emphasize that the SPC participants and members of the Jury received complete free registration, as well as warm and friendly hospitality.


All finalists papers were included in MELECON 2014 Proceedings and in IEEE Explore digital library.


After sending the SPC final results to IEEE services, the official prizes (diploma and money) are to be sent by IEEE Services to winners within the next period.



p style=”text-align: left”>As soon as possible, complete report-information about the results of IEEE Region 8 Student Paper Contest 2014 will be posted at SAC page, including several pictures. An article about SPC 2014 is planned for Region 8 News.


 ,(Professor George Paunovic  ([email protected]

IEEE Region 8 Student Paper Contest coordinator


SPC 2015 Rules


  1. Once every year, each IEEE Student Branch (SB) may hold a Student Paper Contest (SPC) under its own responsibility.
  2. The winner(s) of each SB SPC may compete for Region 8 Contest, held at the Regional level. A Branch may submit one paper for every 100 branch members or part thereof, with a maximum of three papers.
  3. At Region 8 Contest. an international Jury will grade the written papers without knowing the identity of the author nor his school. Jury will decide which papers will be accepted for presentation at the Region 8 SPC oral finals.
  4. Only IEEE student members and IEEE graduate student members are allowed to be authors of the SPC papers. Each author has to be a member of an IEEE R8 Student Branch at the time of the original submission of the paper to the Branch Contest, and a member (student or not) of IEEE at the time of the oral presentation. The work presented has to be completed before the student receives the engineering degree that entitles him/her to start preparing a doctoral thesis and the submission of the paper to the Region 8 Contest must be completed within 12 months after graduation. A doctoral thesis is not considered.
  5. Although the original paper – i.e. the paper that was submitted to the local Branch Contest – may be written in any language, the paper that is submitted to the Region 8 Contest should be in English. The oral presentation shall be in English, as well.
  6. When submitting a paper for the Region 8 Contest, each SB Counselor will provide a document (point 15.b) certifying that condition 4 is fulfilled, giving the IEEE membership number(s) of the author(s), and stating during which year(s) after high school the work has been performed. Any other useful information concerning the work and background is welcome. This document should be attached to the Student Paper Cover Sheet (see “Author Guidelines on Paper Layout” and “Student Paper Cover Sheet”).
  7. Finalists selected by the Jury will be invited to present their papers at one of the Region 8 Conferences. If acceptable to the organizers of the conference at which the oral finals take place, the papers that have been accepted for oral presentation will be published in the proceedings of that conference and possibly included in IEEE Xplore Database. The final format of the papers, with included authors’ names and affiliations, should be in accordance with the conference proceedings’ rules. Electronic versions of the finalists’ papers will also be published in the IEEE Region 8 SAC web pages.
  8. Travel expenses (train 2nd class, or plane economy class for very long distances) will be provided by the Region 8 Student Activities Fund to one author of each paper accepted by the Jury for oral presentation. Living expenses which may occur while attending the oral presentation may also be reimbursed; the guidelines for this reimbursement will be mailed to attendees before the presentation.
  9. The Life Member Fund is offering three prizes (the year 2011 amounts were respectively 800, 500 and 200 US Dollars). Furthermore, the Region 8 Student Activities Fund offers 250 US Dollars as the “Dick Poortvliet Award” to the branch where the winner comes from.
  10. Published work is excluded from the Contest.

Any paper subsequently published should mention an acknowledgement of the received award.




  1. Papers should cover technical and engineering aspects of a subject reasonably within or related to the areas with which the IEEE is concerned with.
  2. The work needs not be original in engineering content, but should be original in treatment and concise in coverage of the author’s contribution to the subject.




  1. The paper must be typewritten on A4 size paper (210 mm × 297 mm), with the text width equal to 183 mm and the text height equal to 243.5 mm; a font size of 10 pt or larger should be used. The two-column IEEE Transactions style (with the space between columns equal to 4.1 mm) is required.
  2. The paper should not exceed six (6) pages. Overlength papers will not be considered for the contest!




  1. An electronic version (pdf file) of the paper is to be sent before the deadline to the IEEE Region Student Paper Contest Coordinator: Prof. Dr. George Paunovic, email: [email protected], fax: +381113370159, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, PF 3554, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia. It is required that the version of the paper sent to the Region 8 Contest does not show the  identities of the authors and their educational establishments.  The paper MUST be accompanied by the
    1. Student Paper Cover Sheet (separate doc file)
    2. SB Counselor certification document from point 6 (separate scanned file or copy sent by fax), and
    3. Signed IEEE Copyright form
  2. The submission deadline is 15th of December.




  1. Those authors selected to give an oral presentation should develop a pleasant and logical presentation of the subject matter fitted to 15-20 minutes. The Jury will question each contestant for an additional period of 10 minutes typical.
  2. An electronic presentation – based on Power Point, for instance – using a beamer (LCD data projector) is preferred. Additional presentation tools may be provided if a request is made and granted in advance. The presentation should not attempt to cover the entire paper, but rather to give a general idea and enlarge on one or two specific points.




  1. There shall be maximum five judges within Jury.
  2. The contributions are graded as follows:
    1. Written paper
      1. technical content: 45 points maximum,
      2. technical presentation: 25 points maximum,
    2. Oral presentation: 30 points maximum.
  3. A preliminary selection based on the written document may be made by the members of the jury, either if too many papers are submitted or if some papers do not reach the expected level or formal requirements.




The following guidelines are suggested to assist grading by providing a uniform layout. In general, the paper should be organized as follows:

  • Student Paper Cover Sheet and Counselor Certification Document. Since the judges must handle the papers without knowledge of the identity of the author and his educational establishment, it is required that the paper itself show no such identification other than the title. The title, author(s)’ name(s) and IEEE membership number(s), corresponding author’s address, school, and Branch Counselor’s name must be shown on a removable cover sheet. The Counselor’s certification document should be removable too.
  • Title page. The title page. The title should consist of the minimum number of key words necessary to portray accurately the content of the paper. Reader’s interest is stimulated by a well-chosen title. The author’s name should not appear on the title page, nor should any other name of persons or schools.
  • Abstract. The abstract should not describe the paper, but should give in brief the essential facts of its content, for example, a brief statement of the problem or objective and a concise summary of results or conclusions, touching upon methods or other details only if they are unique or if they are of some particular significance. The abstract should be no longer than 100 words.
  • Introduction. The introduction should lead to the development of the subject so that the reader may obtain a clear understanding of the significance of the paper. This often can be done by giving briefly the state of the art as background. Then bring out the added advantages of the method of approach and emphasize the importance of the results or conclusions.
  • Body. The main argument of the development of the subject is carried out in the body of the paper, complete with supporting data. The argument should proceed in a logical sequence according to a prepared outline. The writing should be in the third person. Supporting data and results can often be presented most effectively as curves, charts or tables. Well-known abbreviations may be used in the text but should be defined where used the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Generally, the use of abbreviations should be confined to not duplicate text matter.
  • Conclusion. The conclusions are often considered the most important part of a paper. They should be stated concisely in a separate section at the end of the paper. If there are three or more conclusions, greater emphasis can be obtained by numbering each conclusion and setting it off in a separate paragraph.
  • Tables. Tables should be numbered consecutively using Roman numerals. Small tabulations or listings may be made in the text where necessary for continuity. Each table should be titled by giving a brief description as a heading following the table number at the top. Ditto marks should not be used in tables, but brackets may be used to group information common to several lines.  Diagrams. Three types of diagrams may be used: photographs, oscillograms, line drawings. Keep reading matter on illustrations to a minimum; include it in the captions. Portions of illustrations may be identified by letters and explained in the captions. Whenever feasible, combine several curves on the same co-ordinates. Their identifying letters or numbers should be in clear spaces between cross-section lines. If it is necessary to place data over cross-section lines, erase these lines.
  • Appendices. Detailed mathematical proofs, development of equations, and examples which are subordinate to the main argument in the body of a paper, but not essential to following the argument, should be treated in appendices. References are made in the text to details in the appendices. Main equations as they are developed should be numbered consecutively, with the number in parentheses opposite the equation in the right hand margin.
  • References. Any information or development taken from books, periodicals or courses, i.e. from any external source, should be clearly referenced in the text and a suitable reference list should be appended to enable the reader to consult those sources. References should be numbered consecutively and should follow the form shown below:
    • For a periodical: R. N. Hall, “Power rectifiers and transistors,” Proc. IRE, vol. 40, pp. 1512–1519, November 1952.
    • For a book: W. A. Edison, Vacuum Tube Oscillators, Wiley, New York, pp. 170–171, 1948.




The following criteria are suggested to provide a uniform grading standard:

  • Do the authors present their independent work?
  • Is the significant amount of presented work new? Do the authors present a novel interpretation of some existing work?
  • Is the subject matter of substantial technical content and is it presented at an acceptably advanced level?
  • Is the 100-word abstract concise, informative and accurate?
  • Does the written presentation include a satisfactory introduction which properly orients the reader with respect to the general area with which the paper deals? Does the concluding portion of the paper summarize the reader’s impression of what the work has accomplished? Are the conclusions supported by evidence?
  • Does the exposition (and analysis which may be involved) proceed in an orderly and logical manner? Is the paper self-contained?
  • Does the author exhibit ingenuity and resourcefulness in methods of presentation, choice of illustrations, use of analogies and the like?
  • Is the paper technically accurate?
  • Is an unmistakable meaning conveyed with acceptable brevity?
  • Is the format and typesetting quality of the paper appropriate?




Answer concisely and completely the questions in the form below, and send it as a separate file (doc) together with the paper. Only the second part of the Cover Sheet will be sent to Jury and will help in grading the paper.

  • School:
  • Author(s), with their IEEE membership number(s):
  • Name, address, contact phone and e-mail of author to whom correspondence should be addressed:
  • Name, address, contact phone and e-mail of Student Branch Counselor:
  • Name, address, contact phone and e-mail of Student Branch Chair 


  • Paper title:
  • What is the problem and why is it important?
  • What is the original contribution of this work? Be explicit.
  • Does this work check and / or extend previously reported work? What work? Give references. Be explicit.
  • How does this contribution compare to previously published work?
  • If the paper is to be submitted to one of the IEEE Transactions, which Transactions would be the most appropriate? 


IEEE Authorship Workshops

In keeping with IEEE mission to foster technological innovation, IEEE has partnered with leading academic institutions in developing a series of free live authorship workshops offering advice on everything from how the IEEE publishing process works to basic writing tips and submitting a manuscript. The goal of this series is to enable engineers, faculty, researchers, authors, and industry professionals to help advance technology and their careers by enhancing their ability to get published and share their research with the scholarly community.

Each event in this series of live workshops is intended to be free to all technology professionals with an interest in learning how to publish with the IEEE.

Topics include:

  • Benefits of getting published
  • How to choose where to publish a paper
  • What editors look for in a submission
  • Why editors and reviewers reject papers
  • Aiding discovery with the right title, abstracts, and keywords
  • Paper structure and organization
  • Ethics and avoiding misconduct pitfalls
  • Authorship tools available from IEEE

For more information please see the flyers and visit:

Milestone Dedication in Warsaw, Poland, August 5, 2014.

On August 5th 2014, the achievements by Polish mathematicians which could also be defined as a gift to the world in the time of World War II, was paid tribute to in front of the Mathematics Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, during the cutting of the “ribbon” by the IEEE President-Roberto de Marca to unveil the Milestone plaque. The writing on it reads as follows:

First Breaking of Enigma Code by the Team of Polish Cipher Bureau, 1932-1939. Polish Cipher Bureau mathematicians Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski broke the German Enigma cipher machine codes. Working with engineers from the AVA Radio Manufacturing Company they built the ‘bomba’ – the first cryptanalytic machine to break Enigma codes. Their work was a foundation of British code breaking efforts which, with later American assistance, helped to end World War II.”

The highly impressive ceremony consisted of two parts:

– International Seminar „From First Breaking of Enigma Code to Modern Cryptography” which was

organized at the prestige Senate Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland;

– The IEEE Plaque Dedication Ceremony which took place on a square in front of the Mathematics

Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Many distinguished representatives of IEEE participated in the ceremony: IEEE President J. Roberto de Marca, VP-Technical Activities Jacek M. Zurada, Director Div. IV Joseph Modelski, Region 8 Director Martin Bastiaans, R8 Director Elect Costas Stasopoulos and other IEEE members of the Poland Section with its Chair Ryszard S. Jachowicz.

The ceremony was attended by nearly 250 people, including IEEE members, inter alia Vice-President of Warsaw City Wlodzimierz Paszynski, President of Polish Academy of Sciences Michal Kleiber, President of Polish Federation of Engineering Associations – Ewa Mankiewicz-Cudny, President of Association of Polish Electrical Engineering (SEP) – Piotr Szymczak, Chairs de Affairs of Republic of France – Philippe Cerf and the First Secretary, Head of Policy Delivery Group, British Embassy Warsaw – David Wallace, as well as a significant number of high rank Polish army officers, family representatives of the awarded mathematicians and many others.


Fot.1. IEEE President Roberto de Marca [left] and (clockwise) Chair of IEEE Poland Section Ryszard Jachowicz, mathematician Rejewski’s daughter Janina Sylwestrzak and Vice Mayor of Warsaw Capital City Włodzimierz Paszyński unveil the Milestone plaque honouring Polish mathematicians for breaking the German Enigma ciphering machine codes (above in the English language and below in Polish).

Photo 2.

Fot.2. IEEE President Roberto de Marca in front of the Milestone monument.

Photo 3.

Fot.3. After the Milestone dedication

from left to right: J.Zurada, Marca, C. Stasopoulos, J.Modelski and M.Bastiaans

Photo 4.

Fot.4. The Milestone monument

Short history

Enigma is an electrically wired rotor machine; a sequence of ciphers is generated by the motion of rotors in the machine. It is one of several cipher machines that were developed for military use just after World War I. During the 1930s, a trio of Polish mathematicians Marian Rejewski (1905 – 1980), Henryk Zygalski (1907 – 1978), and Jerzy Różycki (1909 – 1942) resolved the German Enigma cipher machine and broke Enigma messages. Working with engineers from AVA Radio Manufacturing Company they built the “bomba” – the first cryptanalytic machine designed to attack Enigma.

Photo 5.

Fot.5. The Enigma cipher machine

The Reichsmarine of Germany began using Enigma cipher coding machines in 1926, and the Reichswehr began using it in 1928. The Polish Cipher Bureau had many successes during the Polish-Soviet War (1919 – 1921), and in the 1920s the Cipher Bureau monitored radio signals resulting from German military exercises. In 1928 the Poles were confronted by messages that – because of the randomness of letters in the messages – were thought to be generated by a cipher machine. The Intelligence Services of other countries believed after some trials that breaking of the Enigma codes was impossible.

By the end of 1932, Rejewski had determined the wiring of the rotors of the military version of Enigma. In 1932, the French gave Rejewski two German manuals that described the operation of military Enigma. He had managed to write a system of equations that modelled the permutations of the six indicators (which were used by the sending operator to transmit the message setting to the receiving operator) at the beginning of Enigma messages. In December 1932, Rejewski received from the French the setting sheets for September and October. This information allowed Rejewski to substitute for some of the unknowns in his system of equations and solve for the wiring of the rotors. The Polish codebreakers developed several techniques to determine settings. For example, Różycki developed the “clock method,” and Zygalski developed a set of perforated sheets. Two other methods resulted in the production of codebreaking machines – one machine to produce a catalogue of settings and their “characteristics” and another to determine the rotor settings. In 1934, Rejewski was able to exploit patterns, which he called characteristics, produced by the six-letter indicators at the beginning of Enigma messages.

Working with the engineers at AVA – Radio Manufacturing Company, Warsaw, one of the most famous codebreaking machines – the bomba – was produced. The six bomby (plural in Polish for “bomba”) searched through all 105,456 rotor settings for those that exhibited patterns that could be determined from the indicators after a sufficient number of messages were intercepted. As there were three rotors and three positions for rotors in Enigma, there were six possible rotor orders; therefore, six bomby were produced. In July 1939, as war with Germany loomed over Poland, the Polish codebreakers met just outside Warsaw with British and French codebreakers. During this meeting, the Poles described their achievements against Enigma. As a result of the meeting, both the British and the French received one of the Enigma doubles and information on the methods used by the Poles to solve daily keys. On September 1, 1939, Germany attacked Poland, and British codebreakers at Bletchley Park continued the attack on Enigma. British mathematicians such as Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman and engineers such as Harold “Doc” Keen and Thomas “Tommy” Flowers developed cryptanalytic machines to attack Enigma and other German ciphers. One of the machines to attack Enigma was the Turing-Welchman bombe. (IEEE Milestone, Bletchley Park, 1939 – 1945). Both the British bombe and the Polish bomba searched through all possible Enigma rotor settings for settings that produced patterns that had been noticed by the codebreakers.

The British bombe searched for patterns in Enigma messages, and the Polish bomba searched for patterns in Enigma indicators. After the United States had entered the war, US Navy mathematicians at Naval Communications in Washington, DC, designed cryptanalytic machines to attack Japanese ciphers and machines to assist the British with the attack on naval Enigma. These codebreaking machines were engineered by Joseph Desch and other engineers at the Naval Computing Machine Laboratory located at National Cash Register Company in Dayton, OH. One of the machines to attack naval Enigma was the US Navy cryptologic bombe. (IEEE Milestone, Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, 1942 – 1945).

Photo 6.

Fot.6. The IEEE Milestone plaque

2015-March Limassol

This page contains information about the 104th IEEE Region 8 Committee Meeting to be held in Limassol on 28-29 of March 2015.

IEEE Region 8 Meeting - Limassol - Group Photo

OpCom Reports

  Director (Costas Stasopoulos)
Past-Director  (Martin Bastiaans) Secretary  (Christian Schmid)
Treasurer  (Brian Harrington) V/C Member Activities  (Dusanka Boskovic)
V/C Student Activities  (Mona Ghassemian) V/C Technical Activities  (Igor Kuzle)

Subcommittee Reports

Action for Industry (AfI) History Activities Coordinator (HA) Section Vitality Coordinator  (SVC)
Awards & Recognition Subcommittee (A&RSC) Life Member Coordinator (LM)   Standards Coordinator  (StC)
Chapter Coordination Subcommittee (ChCSC) Membership Development Subcommittee (MDSC) Strategic Planning
Conference Coordination SubCommittee (CoCSC) Nominations and Appointments Subcommittee   Voluntary Contribution Fund Coordinator (VCF)
Educational Activities SubCommittee (EASC) Professional Activities Subcommittee  (PASC) Women in Engineering Coordinator  (WIE)
Electronic Communications Coordinator  (ECC) Region 8 News (R8News) Young Professionals Subcommittee  (YP)

Section Reports

Austria Section Germany Section Lithuania Section Saudi Arabia (East) Section
Bahrain Section Ghana Section Malta Section Saudi Arabia (West) Section
Belarus Section Greece Section Morocco Section Serbia And Montenegro Section
Benelux Section Hungary Section Nigeria Section Slovenia Section
Bosnia and Herzegovina Section Iceland Section Norway Section South Africa Section
Bulgaria Section Iran Section Oman Section Spain Section
Croatia Section Iraq Section Poland Section Sweden Section
Cyprus Section Israel Section Portugal Section Switzerland Section
Czechoslovakia Section Italy Section Qatar Section Tunisia Section
Denmark Section Jordan Section Republic of Macedonia Section Turkey Section
Egypt Section Kenya Section Romania Section UK and Ireland Section
Estonia Section Kuwait Section Russia Section Ukraine Section
Finland Section Latvia Section Russia (Northwest) Section United Arab Emirates Section
France Section Lebanon Section Russia (Siberia) Section Zambia Section

Sub-Section Reports

Algeria Sub-Section Mauritius Sub-Section Sudan Sub-Section
Botswana Sub-Section Palestine Sub-Section Tanzania Sub-Section